ABBREVIATIONS OF MEASURES
In order to simplify directions and recipes in books relating to cookery, it is customary to use the abbreviations of some weights and measures. Those which occur most frequently in cook books are the following: tsp. for teaspoonfulpt. for pintTb. for tablespoonful
qt. for quartc. for cupfuloz. for ouncelb. for pound
ORDER OF WORK
For successful results in cookery, the work to be done should be planned beforehand and then
carried on with systematic care. By following such a plan, a waste of time and material will be prevented and good results will be secured, for there will be little chance for mistakes to occur. The order of work here outlined will serve to make clear the way in which cooking processes can be carried out satisfactorily.
First, read the quantity and kind of ingredients listed in the recipe, and study carefully the method by which they are to be prepared and combined. In so doing, determine whether the dish is too expensive and whether the amounts called for will make a dish sufficient in size for the number of persons to be served. If they are too large, carefully divide them to make the right quantity; if they are too small, multiply them to make them enough.
The heat itself, which plays such an important part in cooking, should receive attention at the proper time. If the fuel to be used is coal or wood and baking is to be done, build the fire long enough before it is needed, so that it will be burning evenly and steadily.
Then, while the recipe is being prepared, provided it is to be baked, regulate the heat of the oven. If gas or kerosene is to be used, light it after the recipe is read, and regulate it during the measuring and mixing of the ingredients. Before proceeding to prepare a dish, clear enough working space for the utensils that are to be used, as well as for carrying on the various operations without feeling crowded. Then, on the cleared space, place the necessary measuring utensils, such as a measuring cup, a knife, a teaspoon, and a tablespoon.
Select a bowl or a pan for mixing, a spoon for stirring, and, when needed, an egg whip or beater for eggs and separate bowls in which to beat them. Choose the utensil in which the mixture is to be cooked, and, if necessary, grease it. During the process of preparing the dish, measure accurately all the ingredients to be used, and check them up with the recipe, so as to be sure that none are missing and that each one is in its proper amount.
If all these steps are accurately taken, the mixing, which is the next step, can be accomplished quickly and without error. With all the ingredients properly combined, the mixture is ready for the last step, the cooking or the baking. This must be done with the utmost care, or an otherwise properly prepared dish may be spoiled.