BREAD AND CAKE MIXERS
Where baking is done for only a small number of persons, bread and cake mixers are not indispensable, but they save much labor where baking is done on a large scale. It is
comparatively easy, for instance, to knead dough for three or four loaves of bread, but the process becomes rather difficult when enough dough for eight to sixteen loaves must be handled.
For large quantities of bread and cake, mixers, when properly used, are labor-saving. In addition, such devices are sanitary, and for this reason they are used in many
homes where the bakings are comparatively small.
The type of bread mixer in common use is shown in Fig. 4. It consists of a covered tin pail
a that may be fastened to the edge of a table by the clamp b. Inside of the pail is a kneading prong c, in the shape of a gooseneck, that is revolved by turning the handle d. The flour and other materials for the dough are put into the pail, and they are mixed and kneaded mechanically by turning the handle.
A cake mixer, the usual type of which is shown in Fig. 5, is similar in construction to a bread mixer. Instead of a pail, however, for the dough ingredients, it has a deep pan a, and instead of one kneading prong it has several prongs, which are attached to two arms b, as shown.
These arms are revolved by gear-wheels c that fit in a large gearwheel d attached to a shaft e, which is turned by means of a handle f. The large number of mixing prongs in a cake mixer are necessary, because cake dough must be thoroughly stirred and beaten, whereas in bread making the dough must be made to form a compact mass.
--Although machines for washing dishes are to be had, they are most helpful where
large numbers of people are served and, consequently, where great quantities of dishes are to be washed. Such machines are usually large and therefore take up more space than the ordinary
kitchen can afford. Likewise the care and cleaning of them require more labor than the washing of dishes for a small family entails. Large quantities of hot water are needed to operate mechanical dish washers, and even where they are installed, the glassware, silver, and cooking utensils must, as a rule, be washed by hand.
--A device that has proved to be really labor-saving is the fireless cooker, one type of which is shown in Fig. 6. It consists of an insulated box a lined with metal and divided into
compartments b, with pans c that fit into them. Hotplates, or stones, as they are sometimes called, are frequently used if the article to be cooked requires them. These stones, which are shown at d, are supported in the compartments by metal racks e, and they are lifted in and out by means of wire handles f.
To use a fireless cooker properly, the food must be cooked for a short time on the stove; then it must be tightly covered and placed in one of the insulated compartments. If hotplates are to be used they must be heated in the same manner. The food loses its heat so gradually in the fireless cooker that the cooking proceeds slowly but effectually. When the previous heating has been sufficient, the food will be cooked and still warm when the cooker is opened hours later. Some articles of food occasionally need reheating during the process. By this method of cooking there is no loss of flavor or food value, and the food usually requires no further attention after being placed in the cooker. It also permits of economy in both fuel and time.