TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
As foods are sold by weight and by measure, and as recipes always call for certain weights and measures, it is absolutely necessary that every person engaged in the purchase and preparation of foods should be familiar with the tables of weights and measures in common use for such purposes in the United States and practically all other English-speaking countries. In addition, it will be well to have a knowledge of relative weights and measures, so as to be in a position to use these tables to the best advantage.
The table used ordinarily for weighing foods is the table of AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. Another
table of weights, called the table of Troy weight, is used by goldsmiths and jewelers for weighing precious metals. It should not be confused with avoirdupois weight, however, because its pound contains only 12 ounces, whereas the avoirdupois pound contains 16 ounces. The table of avoirdupois weight, together with the abbreviations of the terms used in it, is as follows:
437-1/2 grains (gr.)= 1 ounceoz.
16 ounces= 1 poundlb.
100 pounds= 1 hundredweightcwt.
20 hundredweight= 1 tonT.
2,000 pounds Although 2,000 pounds make 1 ton, it is well to note that 2,240 pounds make 1
long ton (L.T.). The long ton is used by coal dealers in some localities, but the ton, sometimes called the short ton, is in more general use and is the one meant unless long ton is specified.
The table of
LIQUID MEASURE is used for measuring all liquids, and is extremely useful to the
housewife. This table, together with the abbreviations of its terms, is as follows:
4 gills (gi.)= 1 pintpt.
2 pints= 1 quartqt.
4 quarts= 1 gallongal.
31-1/2 gallons = 1 barrelbbl.
2 barrels= 1 hogshead hhd.63 gallons
The table of DRY MEASURE is used for measuring dry foods, such as potatoes, dried peas and
beans, etc. The table of dry measure, with its abbreviations, follows:
2 pints (pt.) = 1 quartqt.
8 quarts= 1 peckpk.
4 pecks= 1 bushel bu.
Tables of RELATIVE WEIGHTS AND MEASURES are of value to the housewife in that they
will assist her greatly in coming to an understanding of the relation that some of the different weights and measures bear to one another. For example, as dry foods are sold by the pound in some localities, it will be well for her to know the approximate equivalent in pounds of a definite quantity of another measure, say a quart or a bushel of a certain food.
Likewise, she ought to know that when a recipe calls for a cupful it means 1/2 pint, as has been explained. Every one is familiar with the old saying, "A pint's a pound the world around," which, like many old sayings, is not strictly true, for while 1 pint is equal to 1 pound of some things, it is not of others. The following tables give approximately the relative weights
and measures of most of the common foods:
APPROXIMATE MEASURE OF 1 POUND OF FOOD
Beans, dried 2 CUPFULS
Butter 2 CUPFULS
Coffee, whole 4 CUPFULS
Corn meal 3 CUPFULS
Flour 4 CUPFULS
Milk 2 CUPFULS
Molasses 1-1/2 CUPFULS
Meat, chopped, finely packed 2 CUPFULS
Nuts, shelled 3 CUPFULS
Oats, rolled 4 CUPFULS
Olive oil 2-1/2 CUPFULS
Peas, split 2 CUPFULS
Raisins 3 CUPFULS
Rice 2 CUPFULS
Sugar, brown 2-2/3 CUPFULS
Sugar, granulated 2 CUPFULS
Sugar, powdered 2-3/4 CUPFULS
APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF 1 TABLESPOONFUL OF FOOD
APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF 1 CUPFUL OF FOOD
In measuring, you will find the following relative proportions of great assistance:
3 tsp. = 1 Tb.
16 Tb. = 1 c.